When Indian origin scientist samir Mathur used the principles of string theory to show that black holes are actually tangled-up balls of cosmic strings, his “fuzzball theory” had cascading effect on other physicists who tried to build on it further concluding that the surface of the fuzzball was actually a firewall.
According to the firewall theory, the surface of the fuzzball is deadly. In fact, the idea is called the firewall theory because it suggests that a very literal fiery death awaits anything that touches it.
Mathur and his team, while expanding on their fuzzball theory reched a completely different conclusion. They see black holes not as killers, but rather as benign copy machines of a sort.
They believe that when material touches the surface of a black hole, it becomes a hologram, a near-perfect copy of itself that continues to exist just as before.
“Near-perfect” is the point of contention. There is a hypothesis in physics called complementarity, which was first proposed by Stanford University physicist Leonard Susskind in 1993. Complementarity requires that any such hologram created by a black hole be a perfect copy of the original.
Mathematically, physicists on both sides of this new fuzzball-firewall debate have concluded that strict complementarity is not possible; That is to say, a perfect hologram can’t form on the surface of a black hole.
This new dispute about firewalls and fuzzballs hinges on whether physicists can accept that black holes are imperfect, just like the rest of the universe.
“There’s no such thing as a perfect black hole, because every black hole is different,” Mathur explained.
His comment refers to the resolution of the “information paradox,” a long-running physics debate in which Hawking eventually conceded that the material that falls into a black hole isn’t destroyed, but rather becomes part of the black hole.
The black hole is permanently changed by the new addition. It’s as if, metaphorically speaking, a new gene sequence has been spliced into its DNA. That means every black hole is a unique product of the material that happens to come across it.