With the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) achieving the so-called ultimate triumph in particle physics with its Higgs Boson experiment in 2012, China has jumped the bandwagon while Japan is piggy-backing the CERN. India has already dug the earth in Tamil Nadu for its Netrino underground venture.
What’s coming forth is that Chinese scientists at the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, working with international collaborators, said a plan to build a massive particle accelerator travesrsing 52-km compared to 26-km at CERN. To be built by 2028, the 52-km underground tunnel, bigger than any other tunnel, to smash electrons and positrons together.
The atom smashers or particle accelerators, collide atomic nuclei together at extremely high energies, using engineering that exploits incredibly cold temperatures, very low air pressure and hyperbolically fast speeds.
"We have completed the initial conceptual design and organised international peer review recently and the final conceptual design will be completed by the end of 2016," Wang Yifang, director of the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, told state-run China Daily.
China’s move to build a bigger ring for the Higgs boson particle was aimed at studying in greater precision what Geneva-based smaller CERN collider achieved in 2012. More than that, in view of some apprehensions in media over the reliable nature of the HiggS Boson experiment, the Chinese facility would either prove or disprove the Nobel recipient institute for sure.
Also the Chinese LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is proposed to be built at $3 billion and serve to provide the platform for the next generation collider called a ‘super proton-proton collider’. But China is not alone in its particle physics venture as even India and Japan are into similar future plans. While Japan has finalized the location for its joint venture with CERN last year, India has already dug the ground beneath Tamil Nadu despite opposition to the Neutrino project.
Even the United States had pondered CERN-like project in the 1990s and had spent $2 billion before scrapping the project as unusually expensive for the kind of results expected. In 1993, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) or Desertron in short was planned in Texas for an LHC of 87.1 km (54.1 miles) with an energy of 20 TeV per proton or 40 TeV collision energy. It could have emerged 8 times more powerful than the LHC at CERN but the US Congress eventually "canceled the project after it contested its utility and $2 billion had already been spent," said Scientific American.
On its part, CERN has renovated its LHC doubling its accelerator capacity for running at a collision energy of 13 TeV, nearly double its last time energy capacity. CERN’s LHC is the largest particle accelerator with a 27-km superconducting tunnel machine that was cooled to its original operating temperature of 1.9 degrees above absolute zero now before reesuming it in May 2015.
Even Pakistan has edged others by joining CERN as full-time member at a payment of high cost for the membership while India is likely to decide to join CERN.